A missile landed on the outskirts of Baghdad airport, Iraqi military said, adding that it was launched from south of the airport late on Monday.
An army statement said the area where the missile was launched from includes a military base used by US troops.
Security forces have initiated a search operation to uncover the perpetrators, the statement added.
The rocket struck close to the headquarters of the US-led coalition, an Iraqi security official was cited by the Associated Press as saying.
The attack is the first to target the airport since May 6 when three rockets struck near its military sector.
The rockets had struck close to Iraqi forces at the military airport, another near Camp Cropper, once a US detention facility, and the last near to where US forces are stationed at the base.
The US has accused Iran-backed militias of carrying out such attacks in the past.
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